glava
     

TASK 11

V krajšem besedilu, ki vsebuje splošen opis računalniškega vodila (bus), smo izrazom za materiale in procese obdelave premešali črke. Da boš besede lažje poiskal, so v oklepaju napisani njihovi slovenski prevodi. 

Adapted from http://www.millbury.k12.ma.us/hs/techrepair/busses.html

Bus

General Information:

Function and Description: Printed circuit boards are made of strips of multi-layered (1) reppoc (baker) called traces placed by a (2) ntigpirn (tiskanje) and  (3) tecingh (jedkanje) process on flat pieces of (4) befirssalg (steklena vlakna) (or other material that is stiff and does not conduct electricity. Through these wires or traces, a CPU talks to memory, expansion boards, keyboards, etc. It communicates via the (5) temal (kovina) circuitry (metal traces or the (6) lervis (srebro) lines you see) on the motherboard by shooting electrons along the thin metal traces. Instead of connecting each chip to the processor, sharing wires between these elements became the idea for the bus connection.


a

KEY: 1. copper, 2. printing, 3. etching, 4. fiberglass, 5. metal, 6. silver

TASK 12

Pozorno preberi besedilo Chipset  in nedoločnike v oklepaju postavi v ustrezno glagolsko obliko. Za lažje reševanje naloge smo ti v vsakem oklepaju napisali, v kateri glagolski čas moraš postaviti nedoločnik.

Chipset

Adapted from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

a

Diagram of a motherboard chipset

A chipset is a group of integrated circuits, or chips that ­­are designed to work together, and ___1___ (MARKET - the Present Simple, passive voice) as a single product.

  •  

In computing, the term chipset ___2___  (commonly/USE - the Present Simple, passive voice) to refer to a set of specialized chips on a computer's motherboard or an expansion card. In personal computers based on Intel Pentium-class microprocessors, the term often refers to a specific pair of chips on the motherboard: the northbridge and the southbridge. The northbridge links the CPU to very high-speed devices, especially main memory and graphics controllers, and the southbridge connects to lower-speed peripheral buses (such as PCI or ISA). In many modern chipsets, the southbridge actually contains some on-chip integrated peripherals, such as Ethernet, USB, and audio devices. A chipset ___3___ (usually/DESIGN – the Present Simple, passive voice) to work with a specific family of microprocessors. Because it controls communications between the processor and external devices, the chipset ___4___ (PLAY – the Present Simple) a crucial role in determining system performance.
The manufacturer of a chipset is often independent from the manufacturer of the motherboard. Current manufacturers of chipsets for PC-compatible motherboards include NVIDIA, AMD, VIA Technologies, SiS, Intel and Broadcom. Apple computers and Unix workstations from Sun, NeXT, SGI, and others have traditionally used custom-designed chipsets; now that Sun and Apple have adopted x86 processors, they ___5___ (BEGIN - the Present Perfect) to use standard PC chipsets in some of their computers. Some server manufacturers also ___6___ (DEVELOP - the Present Simple) custom chipsets for their products.
In the 1980s, Chips and Technologies, founded by Dado Banatao (who later founded S3 Graphics), ___7___ (START - the Past Simple) the manufacturing of chipsets for PC-compatible computers. Computer systems produced since then often share commonly used chipsets, even across widely disparate computing specialties. For example, the NCR 53C9x, a low-cost chipset implementing a SCSI interface to storage devices, could be found in Unix machines such as the MIPS Magnum, embedded devices, and personal computers.
In home computers, game consoles and arcade game hardware of the 1980s and 1990s, the term chipset ___8___ (USE – the Past Simple, passive voice) for the custom audio and graphics chips. Examples include the Commodore Amiga's Original Chip Set or SEGA's System 16 chipset.

V spodnjo tabelo zapiši izbrano obliko glagola.

  1. __________________________________
  2. __________________________________
  3. __________________________________
  4. __________________________________
  5. __________________________________
  6. __________________________________
  7. __________________________________
  8. __________________________________

 

Key: 1. are usually marketed, 2. is commonly used, 3. is usually designed, 4. plays, 5. have begun, 6. develop, 7. started, 8. was used

 

TASK 13

Iz spodnjih pravil smo izpustili štiri glagole. Pozorno preberi besedilo in glagole iz okvirčkov razporedi na pravo mesto. Potem izpolni še razpredelnico.

 

Keep

Make

Record

Seek

Basic Troubleshooting Rules

There are basic rules to follow when troubleshooting:
1. _____________ only one change at a time: If you make more than one change at a time, you won’t know which change solved the problem. If a change you made didn’t help, undo the change before trying the next one.
2. _____________ all changes: It can be very difficult to remember all the changes you’ve made, especially if you’ve tried several. There’s no sense in repeating changes; and if you ha _____________ven’t solved the problem and need to turn the machine over to another technician, the machine should be the same as when you got it.
3. _____________ a record of all error messages: We discuss error messages later in this chapter.
4. _____________ assistance: Others might have experience with the problem you are having. Ask colleagues. Look on the manufacturer’s or developer’s Web site for their knowledge base or frequently asked questions (FAQs), or call the company. In many cases, there is a simple fix or software patch to solve your problem. You can also search the Internet for the problem; in many cases, there are forums where people post problems and others give recommended solutions. You can find tips on obtaining tech support later in this chapter.
Key: 1. Make 2. Record, 3. Keep, 4. Seek

Base form

Past simple

Past participle

 

 

kept

record

 

 

 

sought

 

 

 

made

Key:

Base form

Past simple

Past participle

keep

kept

kept

record

recorded

recorded

seek

sought

sought

make

made

made

TASK 14

Pazljivo preberi besedilo z naslovom Things Not to Do with a Computer in se odloči, če spodnje trditve držijo ali ne.

  1. In the past, people have mistaken their CD drive for a cup holder.
  2. If there is a potential problem with the power, you should switch  as many switches back and forth as possible to locate the problem. 
  3. Plugging in a new USB device without reading the manual is a bad idea.
  4. People often spill all sorts of liquids on their laptops by accident. 
  5. The cat drank a glass of Chablis when the owner was away.
  6. The keyboard of a desktop computer is usually very expensive. 

Things Not to Do with a Computer

Many of us have heard of how the PC user called in to say his cup holder was not working on his computer only to find out he was referring to his CD drive. Well, that’s obviously a silly thing to do, but following are some less obvious but also not-so-wise things to do with your computer.
The switch on the back of the power supply that says 115/230 is not to be used to see if there is a problem with the power by switching it back and forth.
No matter how much you think you know, make it a rule never to plug in a new USB device until you read the manual. In most cases, the software has to be installed first or in a specific manner, and by skipping the proper steps, you might waste a lot of time trying to get the device to work correctly.
We are constantly getting laptop computers in the shop for repair due to all types of liquids spilling on the keyboard that were kept right next to it. We just bought a laptop for parts that was less than a year old. The owner was very careful with her laptop, but her cat was not and knocked a glass of Chablis right into the keyboard instantly ruining it. Unlike a desktop computer where the keyboard is a separate and usually inexpensive peripheral, the notebook keyboard is directly over the circuitry of the computer, and the liquid will wick its way into every crevice and corrode and short out the system.

Key: 1. T, 2. F, 3. T, 4. T, 5. F, 6. F

TASK 15

Pozorno preberi daljše spodnje besedilo o 'nesrečah' z računalniki in odgovori na vprašanja s kratkimi odgovori. (Uporabi tako imenovani note form.) Odgovore napiši na črte pod vprašanji. Za lažje reševanje naloge ti svetujemo, da najprej prebereš vprašanja in šele nato besedilo.

  • Who should take care of your laptop if you accidentally spill something on it? _____________________________________________________________________
  • Name a few static-sensitive components. _____________________________________________________________________
  • How many fans were there on the processor of the customer who had a problem with his server? _____________________________________________________________________
  • Did the customer from Brooklyn have to buy a new monitor? _____________________________________________________________________
  • Which material is more suitable for tying wires inside your computer, nylon or rubber? _____________________________________________________________________
  • Do people often forget to keep their virus protection up-to-date? _____________________________________________________________________
  • Does it matter where we keep the computer? _____________________________________________________________________
  • How much will you have to pay for Microsoft Office Professional or a similar office suite if you decide to upgrade your PC for professional use?

Key: 1. A (qualified) technician., 2. Processor, memory, add-in card, etc., 3. Two., 4. No., 5. Nylon.,6. Yes., 7. Yes., 8. About $ 600. 

COMPUTER 'ACCIDENTS'


Speaking of spilling liquids on the laptop, customers often turn on their laptops after only wiping the outside of it right after the spill. Basic science tells us that will only ensure more, and most likely permanent and possibly fatal, damage. We try to tell all of our customers that if a spill ever occurs to immediately remove the battery, unplug the laptop, turn it upside down to minimize migration of the liquid into the components, and bring it to a qualified technician right away to be cleaned out. Never let your curiosity force you to turn it back on.
A customer recently walked into the shop and asked if we could test his Pentium 4 processor. When asked if he had it with him, he retrieved it from his pocket and held it up proudly by the corners. Another time a customer asked if we could test his memory module. He took it out of his shirt pocket (it wasn’t in any type of container) and dropped it on the floor. The items might have been working before they brought them in, but their chances started decreasing when they handled them that way. Do not ever handle a static-sensitive component (processor, memory, add-in card, etc.) with your bare hands unless you are wearing a wrist strap and using precautions to ground yourself and prevent static discharge.
Another customer brought in his server because it was dead. We checked it out and discovered a 1⁄4-inch gap between the processor and its heat sink. We removed the heat sink and found globs of thermal transfer compound—so much that the heat sink didn’t make good contact with the processor—and there was a thermal pad as well. Now, the ironic thing is that this customer is obsessed with cooling. There were two fans on the processor and various case fans. However, his failure to follow directions caused his CPU to overheat and fail. The rule: use either a thermal pad or a small amount of thermal transfer compound, and make sure that the heat sink is flush against the processor.
One time a customer from Brooklyn called and frantically explained that his video disappeared, and he needed his computer for business right away. He was willing to buy a new monitor. We told him to bring in his computer and monitor. When we checked out the monitor, we found that the brightness had been turned all the way down. The lesson here is to always check the simplest, most obvious things first.
Often, when a PC comes in to the shop it has loose wires hanging inside even though the original system builder took the time to tie the wires. The problem was that they used rubber bands, and the rubber bands had rotted away from age and the heat within a computer. Another thing we have seen is short-circuited wiring from twist ties. When the paper on a twist ties dries up and goes away, all that is left is a thin metal wire that can wear through insulation and short out connections. When you tie up all the wires inside your computer to make them look neat and to help increase the airflow for cooling, use nylon zip ties or nylon wire restraints and clips designed for the purpose. They are easier to work with and will last much longer.
Up in the cooler climates, we occasionally have PCs come in for freeze-ups or damage that cannot be immediately explained, until we find out that the computer is kept right next to a radiator or heating vent.
One of the frequent causes of problems in PCs we see is viruses. Most name brand computers come with some form of virus protection. Usually, it is good for one year or is a three-month trial version. When we ask the customers if they have virus protection, they say yes. When we ask them if it is up to date, they usually assume that you install it and forget it and you are protected forever. After they get the bill to clean out the virus and save the data on the computer, they rarely forget to stay up to date.
On that note, many people out there cannot believe they got a virus because they do not open attachments or open e-mails only from people they know. They forget or do not know that the virus can come from an e-mail sent from their friend’s or family member’s PC without their knowledge. Additionally, viruses can come over the Web, even if there is no browser open. In fact, my virus detection software detected and cleaned a virus while I was researching links on a Web site while writing this chapter.
Another less technical but important issue is the choice of cabinets for computers. While many computers are getting smaller all the time, we constantly see customers choosing a computer desk or cabinet that does not fit the case. I recently installed a pair of computer systems at a home and the new furniture had arrived and was installed. The so-called computer desks looked great, but the first thing I noticed was that the shelf for the PC had a door and only one small hole for the cables in the back. There was no consideration of ventilation, or cabling, and you had to open the door just to insert a CD, DVD, or floppy disk. Things worked out after I opened the backs and installed small bumpers on the doors so they would allow some ventilation. Often, the problem is size, and there is no room for the computer once it is in place with all the cables attached. It sometimes seems as if the designers of computer office furniture forget that they have to accommodate machines with cables attached and the need for ventilation.
Many times, I have been called upon to work with a small business with two or more PCs it purchased at a big box store or online, and now the company wants to be able to take advantage of networking or need a server to accommodate its needs and growth. The assumption of many of these customers is that a computer is a computer, and one for home is the same as one for business, and the only difference is the work they are doing on them. That cannot be further from the truth. The difference between a professional versus home version of Windows when purchasing a new PC is usually $60 to $90 dollars versus approximately $180 dollars to upgrade later. Most home PCs come with a home suite of programs to keep the cost of the PC lower and more attractive to the buyers. However, Microsoft Office Professional or a similar office suite at the time of purchase will cost you about $300 now, or you can buy the full product later for about $600. The point here is that consulting an expert first will probably save you time and money in the long term.


TASK 16

Pozorno preberi besedilo o prenosnikih. V spodnjo tabelo zapiši ustrezno obliko dane besede. Naloga preverja znanje besedotvorja. Takšen tip naloge je pogosto del poklicne mature.

 

  1. AMAZING_______________________
  2. CHOOSE ________________________
  3. REPLACE________________________
  4. CONNECT _______________________
  5. ABLE ___________________________
  6. EXPAND ________________________
  7. SMALL __________________________
  8. GENERAL ________________________

Notebooks

Lucky you. This is an ___1___ small chapter. Which is appropriate because we have a very small subject. That is the notebook computer.
Here you will discover the specifics of PC Card Types, and learn why some batteries have a ‘'memory effect'. In addition, the pros and cons of different types of batteries are explained.
The details of active matrix and passive matrix along with the give and take of each ___2___  become clear.
While the notebook computer comes in wide variety of form factors, for the most part they share a common feature set. That feature set includes:

  • Running on batteries
  • Low power and sensitive display screens
  • PC Card (PCMCIA)
  • Cost more; get less
  • Limited expandability

It can be easily claimed that the largest notebooks are ___3___ for the desktop PC. All components are built-in to the unit; they include everything you would expect to find in a desktop, well, almost everything.
While they don't usually offer multiple monitors, everything else is there. This includes network connection, CD-ROM and a display as big as the viewable display on a standard CRT.

 

 

There are sub-notebooks that are lightweight and wonderful for the traveler.
a
Figure 84: A mini laptop from Sony

Lightweight machines are smaller and designed to be portable, however they may require a cable ___4___ for a floppy or CD-ROM.
In many cases, the floppy and CD-ROM have to be swapped out of an expansion bay. This means that there is only one bay available to use either the CD-Rom or a floppy drive, unlike the PC where both are integral to the machine. Therefore, you choose either device depending on what you are doing.
Planning the installation of a program is key here. It is not fun to have to power off a machine halfway through a program installation because you find you now need to use a floppy drive when you had the CD-ROM drive connected.
Some laptops have a software utility used for Hot Swapping.
Hot swapping refers to the ___5___ to change devices "on the fly" without powering down the machine. The key here is also having the machine recognize the new device, as in you switched from a CR-ROM drive to a floppy drive even though it is being used in the same ___6___ bay.
With the wonderful world of USB available, most all devices used by the big brother PCs can be added to a laptop. The need for powering down and swapping devices in the expansion bays is eliminated.
The new USB hubs are small and portable making this a feasible travel or desktop option. Often the USB capability is referred to as hot plugging or hot swapping.
Sub-Notebooks are the ___7___ units that still have some sort of keyboard large enough to be able to use your fingers (as opposed to a stylus or pencil) to type. The hard drive is internal, and a cable or other external connector (USB port) is used to connect any other type of drive. Typically, this would be any USB device for portability. The network card and modem are ___8___  built in.

Adapted from ExamInsight For Exam 220-231-CompTIA A+ Core Hardware Certification

Key: 1, amazingly, 2. choice, 3. replacements, 4. connection, 5. ability, 6. expansion, 7. smallest, 8. generally

TASK 17

Na spletu si naletel na zanimiv oglas za službo. Pazljivo ga preberi in se nanj prijavi. Tvoja prijava naj vsebuje vse zahtevane podatke o tebi.

Help wanted:  Applications for Summer Jobs 2008 Are Now Accepted


Work, learn, enjoy! Join our friendly team and earn during the big break from studies. Make new friends and acquire new skills. Each summer we hire numerous workers and interns. Now we started to accept job applications for the Summer Seasonal Employee 2008 Program. Jobs include duties such as loading, unloading, setting up, assembling, testing, and configuring computers, laptops, printers, and other computer related electronics. Some physical work is involved. Computer hardware background is highly desired although generally not required, a basic training will be provided.

Preference will be given to those who can work continuously through out summer from late May to late August, although part timers will be considered depending on the work load and number of workers available at the time. Students are encouraged to apply. We prefer college-age workers but high school seniors will be also considered. Must have your own dependable transportation to work, might want to consider to carpool with other workers. Returned employees and those who can work with us after the summer on a part time basis are particularly welcome.

The job location is in Houston, Texas. Work hours are 7-4 with a lunch break. The hours are more flexible for assembling computer teams but is strict for delivering teams. Compensation depends on experience, skills, and pay history. Interview will be conducted through out the month of May.

To apply send an email to information@directron.com with contact info (such as phone numbers), background information (such as current college and major you are attending), work and pay history, computer hardware skill level, if any. Make sure to include "SUMMER Jobs" in the subject of your email. We encourage you to include the resume info in the body of the email rather than sending it as an attachment for our convenience.

Our address is: 10402 Harwin Drive, Houston, TX 77036. Click here for directions

Interview Schedule: We shall conduct interviews at our site on the following dates. The interviews are rather informal. You do not need to call in for an appointment. Just arrive during our work hours on these dates: Fridays 9am - 6pm and Saturdays 11am - 4pm.

Preden se lotiš pisanja pisma, preveri, kako dobro si razumel oglas in presodi, če spodnje trditve držijo ali ne.

1. The job may require some physical work on the part of the employees.
2. Only people who can work continuously through out summer from late May to late August will be accepted for the jobs.
3. The company is based in Houston, Texas.
4. There is no lunch break.
5. The applicants are asked to send their resume info as an attachment.
6. It is absolutely necessary for you to make an appointment for your job interview.

Key: 1. T, 2. F, 3. T, 4. F, 5. F, 6. F

TASK 18

Vaš prijatelj prihodnji vikend praznuje 18. rojstni dan. Ker ga želite presenetiti z lepim darilom, in ker veste, da potrebuje nov USB ključek, se odločite, da mu ga boste podarili. V trgovini se morate odločiti med tremi modeli, ki imajo primerne lastnosti in ceno. V 80 besedah povejte za katerega se boste odločili in zakaj. 

a

a

a

 

I my opinion, the best choice would be _____________________________________ because

 ___________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________

 

TASK 19

Iz spodnjega opisa za besedo measurement (mera, meritev) smo izpustili nedoločne člene, 8 x a in 4 x an. Tvoja naloga je, da jih pravilno razporediš na njihova mesta.

Measurement

When referring to computers, ___1___ measurement is the process of determining ___2___ dimension, capacity, or quantity of ___3___ object or the duration of ___4___ task. By using measurements ____5___ individual can help ensure that ___6___ object is capable of fitting within ___7___ area, ___8___ storage medium is capable of storing the necessary files, ___9___ task will complete in the required time, or how fast ___10___ product is when compared to another product. Below is ___11___ listing of different types of computer measurements you may encounter while working with ___12___ computer or in the computer field.

Adapted from: http://www.computerhope.com/jargon/m/measure.htm

Key: 1. a, 2. a, 3.an, 4. a, 5. an, 6. an, 7. an, 8. a, 9. a, 10. a, 11. a, 12. a

TASK 20 

Pozorno preberi besedilo Cuba Lifts Ban on Home Computers  in ga dopolni z manjkajočimi izrazi. V spodnji tabeli so za vsak izraz predlagane tri možnosti. Obkroži izbrano črko.

  •  

A  has

B have

C  will

  •  

A  which

B  who

C  whose

  •  

A  where

B  why

C  that

  •  

A  for

B  to

C  by

  •  

A  At

B  Since

C  For

  •  

A  due

B  because

C  inspite

  •  

A  has

B  have

C  got

  •  

A  from

B  on

C  to

Key: 1.b, 2.a, 3.a, 4.c, 5.b, 6.b, 7.a, 8.c

Cuba lifts ban on home computers


By Michael Voss

Adapted from: http://www.computerhope.com/news.htm

a


The first legalised home computers ___1___ gone on sale in Cuba, but a ban remains on internet access.
This is the latest in a series of restrictions on daily life ___2___ President Raul Castro has lifted in recent weeks.
Crowds formed at the Carlos III shopping centre in Havana, though most had come just to look.
The desktop computers cost almost $800 (£400), in a country ___3___ the average wage is under $20 (£10) a month.
But some Cubans do have access to extra income, much of it from money sent ___4___ relatives living abroad.
___5___ taking over the presidency in February, Raul Castro has ended a range of restrictions and allowed Cubans access to previously banned consumer goods.
In recent weeks thousands of Cubans have snapped up mobile phones and DVD players.
But only now have the first computer stocks arrived.
Internet access remains restricted to certain workplaces, schools and universities on the island.
The government says it is unable to connect to the giant undersea fibre-optic cables ___6___ of the US trade embargo. All online connections today are via satellite which ___7___ limited bandwidth and is expensive to use.
Venezuela's President Hugo Chavez, Cuba's ally and a critic of the US, is laying a new cable under the Caribbean.
It remains unclear whether, once the connection is completed, the authorities will then allow unrestricted access ___8___ the world wide web.

 

na vrh